A KAFER ARSENAL, PART ONE:
SMALL ARMS AND PORTABLE SUPPORT WEAPONS
INTRODUCTIONInitially reported to have a remarkably minimalist arsenal based on a few simple, though effective, designs, the Kafers have subsequently demonstrated as elaborate a range of small arms and support weapons as found in typical human forces. While Kafer designs are not especially elegant by human standards, and sometimes possess features of questionable utility, in the hands of Kafer forces, they have demonstrated themselves to be a match for the human counterparts on numerous occasions.
CONTENTSSmall Arms and Melee Weapons
Thud Gun 12.1mm Assault Rifle
Mbayisha/MYU 8.4mm Assault Rifle
Mbayisha 2 12.1mm Assault Rifle
Zip Gun 12.1mm Light Machinegun
Kigugumizi 8.4mm Light Machinegun
Miscellaneous Personal Weapons
Donderbus Combat Shotgun
D-Bus II Combat Shotgun
Kafer Rifle Grenades
Personal Energy Weapons
Flashlight 75-01 Laser Rifle
Miscellaneous Personal Equipment
K-Hawk, K-Hammer, and Bug Mace Melee Weapons
Kafer Body Armor
Portable Support Weapons
Scattergun Anti-Personnel Rocket
Copperhead Automated Launch Unit
Blow Torch Flamethrower
Blow Torch 2 Flamethrower
Flash-Fryer Plasma Assault Weapon
Satan Stok/Scattergun-F Incendiary Rocket Launcher
Indirect Fire Support Weapons
Mortero Tumbito 77mm Mortar
Bullroarer 18.5cm Rocket
Anti-Tank Guided Weapons
Blue Hornet Medium ATGW
Heulende Kuh Heavy ATGW
Quickfire II Light ATGW
Thunderbolt and Thunderbolt II Heavy ATGW
Heavy Support Weapons
Triple-Zipper 12.1mm Minigun
Black Flag Chemical Rocket
NARRATIVEJoachim Höpner cursed silently as he struggled uphill, burdened by his FAA-73, body armor, his pack bulging with four Blindicide-3 missiles in their launch tubes and ammunition cassettes for the militia commando's MG-7 light machineguns. He cursed again as the American Special Forces soldier, carrying the massive tight-beam communications rig in his own pack, passed him easily going up the hill. Offworlders, especially Earthers, found Aurore's gravity refreshing. Native born, Höpner had never known any other gravity, and Aurore dragged at him.
A single shot rang out from near the head of the column, then silence. Höpner was too exhausted to react immediately, just halting and staring upward. Mister Sanchez, science teacher at the secondary school in Distant Thunder when he was not wearing his militia lieutenant's collar tabs, waved his rifle from further up the column, the signal to continue on. The commando had been on the march for five days now, shadowing a Kafer band that had broken contact the two times the human militia had closed on them. The plan was to run them into an armored blocking force from the Free Legion and the Texans of TEXBAT, if they would not turn to fight the pursuing militia.
Which meant more walking for Höpner. He trudged on among his fellow commando members. Up ahead two men were using a grappling hook and rope to flip over a single dead Kafer. Höpner flinched, veteran enough to expect an explosion, but none came. Perhaps the Kafers had not had time to booby-trap this body. Perhaps they had had nothing to booby trap it with. Satisfied, the two militiamen fell back into the column, one hanging the hook and rope back on his belt.
Höpner swigged water from his canteen as he passed the dead Kafer. Flat on its back, it looked to have been dead for a day or more, possessing the swollen, pale puffiness the bugs took on after rigor mortis had passed. A mess of shredded flesh at its belly, bound up with what looked to be a human shirt, likely had slowed it and then killed it while its fellows continued their flight. The 9mm APHE round a militiaman had put into the back of its head and blown out its face had likely been unnecessary . . . but after five years of war no one took that chance. Not ever.
The militiaman glanced briefly at the Kafer's weapon, a Thud Gun, the furniture some blackish wood analog that had been hand carved in some intricate designs Höpner guessed might be Kafer writing. The wood was splintered where a round had struck the weapon, and repaired with human friction tape, the front swivel sling carried a string of shrunken bits of flesh. Another eager ear collector among the bugs. An empty quiver for rifle grenades was bolted to the bug's carapace, his cartridge pouches on his webbing were empty, even his canteen pouch was empty. A few rounds showed at the back window on its Thud Gun magazine, but this bug's fellows had picked it over before the militia ever got here.
It was nothing he had not seen before in his sixteen standard
years. He paused, pushed up his bush hat to wipe sweat from his
forehead, and continued marching in the heat and dust of the Auroran
GENERAL NOTES ON KAFER WEAPONRY
The reason for this is postulated to be the Kafer need for extremely robust weapons systems. Some analysts often draw parallels to the 20th Century AK-47, opining that given the minimal standard intelligence level of Kafer troops, there is a need for a weapon that can soldier on with little or no care whatsoever. This assessment, again, tends to be an overstatement, if not totally incorrect. Kafer troops in "dumb mode" have been observed on numerous occasions to clean and care for their weapons without any prompting from their superiors. In point of fact, there is some evidence that even basic Kafer soldiery equipped with Thud Guns consider their weapons some marker of special status, a trend perhaps also supported by the progressive issue of apparently "rank specific" weapons among Kafer forces. What Kafers do with their weapons, however, is to regard them as tools as well as weapons, using them, for instance, as hammers to drive tent stakes or nails, etc. The Thud Gun and even the Flashlight laser rifle seem to bear this abuse quite well, but it is theorized that any examples of gauss or binary weapons produced by Kafers to date simply cannot sustain this sort of use.
An alternate theory holds that Kafer military technology had stagnated to a degree prior to contact with humans. The primary piece of evidence supporting this theory is attempts to date wood and other organic materials used in the construction of some Thud Guns and other weapons. The use of various dating methods has suggested that some Kafer small arms issued to troops fighting on the human colony worlds are up to 87 years old (or at least the wooden hardware on these weapons is). The precise implications of this theory, if true, are unclear, as it appears that since contact with humans the Kafers have introduced a variety of new or improved weapons based on battlefield lessons learned. The most extreme proponent of this line of thinking, Azanian technologist Dr Surat Gupta on contract with the ESA Military Technical Intelligence Office, has dubbed his theories the "Sleeping Giant" model, and suggests that the human victory at Beowulf does not represent the high tide mark of Kafer military capability by any stretch of the imagination.
For those directly engaged in operations against Kafer forces, a number
of points should be borne in mind, especially if Kafer weaponry or
ammunition are pressed into service. The first is the observation of
just how poorly suited to humans the weapons are ergonomically, especially
in terms of remarkably punishing recoil. More worrying, however, for
those forced to use such weapons, is the fact that Kafer weapons and
ammunition appear to have been manufactured in various locations with some
degree of variation in both. In a number of extreme cases on
Kimanjano and Novoya Kiyev, human partisans have been injured or killed by
firing "hot" loads of Kafer ammunition through unusually lightly
constructed Thud Guns or other weapons. Kafer forces appear
to be able to differentiate between ammunition lots, though how they do so
is not entirely understood as most cases of ammunition carry identical
markings so far as human observers can tell. A less immediate,
though more insidious, problem is the use of various toxic chemicals in
both Kafer propellants and LMS laser power cells, a number of whom are
known to be carcinogenic in humans. Prolonged exposure to vapors
from firing Kafer weapons and/or residue in weapons is not recommended,
and in the event of rupture of Kafer LMS power cells, great care should be
take to avoid exposure to the contents.
"THUD GUN" 12.1mm Assault Rifle (K. Vved Ach*) (Revised)The most commonly encountered Kafer weapon, the Thud Gun is a robust, nearly indestructable rifle, built using technologies considered archaic by modern human standards. Notable from a human perspective is the lack of any sort of safety device on the Thud Gun and the use of a two stage trigger rather than a selector switch (i.e. a short squeeze of the trigger fires a single shot, a longer pull produces automatic fire). The Thud Gun incorporates (to date) one of two sights, either a simple colliminator-type sight or a colliminator with an automatic-focus three power zoom function; in either case a rudimentary ballistic computer and laser rangefinder are also present to provide elevation and aiming cues for firing rifle grenades. A notable deficiency compared to comparable human weapons systems is the lack of thermal imaging or other night vision optics of any sort.
Curious, given the believed nature of Kafer versus Kafer warfare, initial examples of the weapon were not equipped to accept a bayonet. A number of weapons captured or observed by the time the war reached Kimanjano, however, appear to have been retrofitted with an integral, folding bayonet. The blade of this bayonet is extremely thick with a T-shaped cross section, and when using it Kafer troops have been observed to extract the blade by jerking it sharply sideways with sufficient force that even this substantial blade breaks.
Standard ammunition for the Thudgun is an explosive bullet generally comparable to human APHE types, though standard ball ammunition and a duplex round have also been encountered. Where human designs mount the ubiquitous 30mm grenade launcher, the Kafers apparently prefer rifle grenades for an integral support weapon which, while more short ranged than human 30mm projectiles, pack quite a bit more punch.
Note that since first contact with the Kafers, human technical intelligence teams have identified numerous variants of the Thudgun, all of which conform to the basic parameters of the weapon but which differ in various ways, suggesting that the design is widespread in Kafer space and subject to some local modification. Examples have been captured relying on variant gas operating systems or bolt designs, while conforming to the general external appearance and performance of the weapon.
Type: 12.1mm assault rifle, Weight (empty): 5 kg (5.3 kg with integral bayonet), Length: 76.2 cm (Bulk = 2), Action: Single Shot or Bursts, Ammunition: 12.1x31mm APHE, MuzzleVelocity: 610 mps, Magazine: 66-round magazine, Magazine Weight: 2 kg, ROF: 2 (or 1 rifle grenade), Aimed Fire Range: 500 m, Area Fire Burst: 10 rounds (AFV = 1.5), Area Fire Range: 300 meters, DPV: 1.1
Ball Ammunition: Ball ammunition is identical to APHE rounds except that DPV drops to 0.8.
Duplex Ammunition: Duplex ammunition is consists of two light
bullets stacked one atop the other in the standard 12.1mm caseless
round. Collectively, the two bullets are somewhat larger than a
standard 12.1mm APHE or ball round, but this ammunition employs more
energetic explosives to compensate for the reduction in propellant
volume. Performance differs from APHE as follows: Aimed
Fire Range: 300 meters (~ 60% normal range), Area Fire Burst:
10 rounds (AFV = 2), Area Fire Range: 180 meters (~ 60% normal
range), Damage Point Value: 0.7 (x2), Special Rule: When hit
by aimed fire from duplex rounds, there is a 50% chance of being hit by
two projectiles. For area fire ignore this, as it is reflected in
the increased AFV.
MBAYISHA YA UHLAKANYANA (also MYU) 8.4mm Assault Rifle (K. Vved Ch*ich)First encountered by Azanian forces defending Kimanjano, the MYU or Mbayisha (Xhosa, "New Rifle;" shortened from Mbayisha ya Uhlakanyana, or "New Kafer Rifle") is an assault rifle of conventional layout (trigger-magazine-barrel) firing a heavy 8.4x43mm caseless round. The design appears to have no relation to the Thud Gun, and analysts are undecided on whether the Mbayisha is a comparable-generation weapon, or an obselescent predecessor to the more common Kafer assault rifle.
Though classified by human forces as an assault rifle, the Mbayisha has formidable recoil and may be more comparable to mid- to late-20th century battle rifles. The 8.4x43mm round, in terms of performance, resembles various human civilian hunting cartridges suited for game in the elk to bear sort of range, and human troops experimenting with captured examples have found the Mbayisha unsuitable for sustained semi-automatic fire and wholly uncontrollable during automatic fire. The Mbayisha uses a thirty-three round magazine, which inserts into the weapon forward of the trigger at an odd angle, being canted about forty-five degrees above the horizontal. The weapon is also notable for its use of two triggers, one for semi-automatic and one for automatic fire, rather than a selector switch or a two-stage trigger such as that found on the Thud Gun.
The weapon appears to include an integral approximately three power telescopic sight (though some examples have been captured lacking this feature). The sight also incorporates a colliminator "blue dot" feature similar to that seen on the Thud Gun. Optics are somewhat simpler than those found on the Thudgun, though some captured weapons have been found with Thudgun optical sights substituted. Like the Thud Gun, the Mbayisha is equipped to fire rifle grenades, though rifle grenades for the two weapons are not interchangeable.
Type: 8.4mm Assault Rifle, Weight (empty): 6.1 kg,
Length: 93.7 cm (Bulk = 3), Action: Single Shot or
Bursts, Ammunition: 8.4 x 43mm Fixed Cartridge Ball,
Muzzle Velocity: 704 mps, Magazine: 33-round box magazine,
Magazine Weight: 0.75 kg, ROF: 3 (or 1 rifle grenade),
Aimed Fire Range: 500 m, Area Fire Burst: 5 rounds (AFV =
0.5), Area Fire Range: 250 meters, DPV: 1
MBAYISHA Mark 2 12.1mm Assault Rifle (Kafer ?)A small number of these weapons have been captured by human forces, primarily on Dunkelheim and Beta Canum Venaticorum. The Mbayisha Mark 2 appears to be a straight-forward remanufacturing of Mbayisha assault rifles to fire the Thudgun's 12.1mm ammunition. Technical intelligence experts are of the opinion that captured weapons include both converted weapons as well as new manufacture. Some captured weapons have retained the Mbayisha telescopic sight, while others have the Thud Gun's optics (and, in some cases, weapons only had iron sights). The weapon is equipped to fire Thud Gun-type rifle grenades.
Type: 12.1mm Assault Rifle, Weight (empty): 6.1 kg (5.6
kg w/o integral optical sight), Length: 93.7 cm (Bulk = 3),
Action:Single Shot or Bursts, Ammunition: 12.1x31mm
APHE, Muzzle Velocity: 610 mps, Magazine: 66-round box
magazine, Magazine Weight: 2 kg, ROF: 2 (or 1 rifle
grenade), Aimed Fire Range: 500 m, Area Fire Burst: 5 rounds
(AFV = 0.5), Area Fire Range: 250 meters, DPV: 1.1
ZIP GUN 12.1mm Light Machinegun (K. Vved!ch*i)This appears to be the standard Kafer "light" machinegun, firing the same 12.1mm APHE round as the ubiquitous Thud Gun. The Zip Gun has been encountered in three versions, a solenoid-fired vehicular mount (as seen on the Deathsled), a second vehicular version using Kafer analogs to spade grips (often encountered mounted on the Bug Bus and other open-topped Kafer vehicles), and finally a "man" portable version fitted with a stock, Thudgun-type trigger mechanism, monopod, etc.
Typical of Kafer weapons, the Zip Gun lacks a fire selector, relying instead on a two stage trigger wherein a short pull fires single rounds, a longer pull full automatic fire, nor does it have a safety. Optics on crew served versions are identical to those found on the Thud Gun, and the weapon can fire the same variant ammunition types described above for the Thud Gun. The baseline weapon does not appear to be capable of firing rifle grenades, but several different adaptor mechanisms have been encountered, some appearing to be factory manufacture while others are crude enough (even by Kafer standards) to suggest they are field improvisations.
Zip Guns may fire ball or duplex 12.1mm ammunition, as well as the standard APHE round. If firing duplex ammunition, Aimed Fire Range is 360 meters (480 meters on vehicular coax mount or monopod), Area Fire Burst is 20 (AFV = 2.5), and Area Fire Range is reduced to 200 meters (300 meters on monopod, 480 meters on vehicular coax mount).
Type: 12.1mm machinegun, Weight (empty): 10.1 kg,
Length: 96 cm (Bulk = 3), Action: Single Shot or Bursts,
Ammunition: 12.1x31mm APHE, Muzzle Velocity: 650 mps,
Magazine: 99 or 132 round magazines, or vehicle ready box,
Magazine Weight (99 round): 3 kg, Magazine Weight (132
round): 5 kg, ROF: 4, Aimed Fire Range: 600 meters (800
meters on monopod or Deathsled mount), Area Fire Burst: 20 (AFV =
2), Area Fire Range: 300 meters (500 meters on monopod; 800 meters
on Deathsled mount), DP Value: 1.1
KIGUGUMIZI 8.4mm Light Machinegun (K. Vved!ch*i ?)The Kigugumizi ("Stutterer") is a light machinegun version of the 8.4mm Mbayisha assault rifle, incorporating more robust (even by Kafer standards) components and an integral broad-footed monopod. The weapon is fed from a ninety-nine round, non-disentegrating, belt feeding from the right-hand side of the weapon (the feed tray is canted at the same odd angle as the Mbayisha's magazines, which can produce feed problems when using extra-long belts). The Kigugumizi incorporates the same telescopic sight as the Mbayisha, and is equipped to fire rifle grenades. The Kigugumizi's trigger is different from the Mbayisha assault rifle, but equally odd; pushing the trigger forward fires a single shot, while pulling it rearward produces automatic fire.
Type: 8.4mm Light Machinegun, Weight (empty): 9.3 kg
(including sight and monopod), Length: 97.8 cm (Bulk = 3),
Action: Single Shot or Bursts, Ammunition: 8.4 x 43mm Fixed
Cartridge Ball, Muzzle Velocity: 704 mps, Magazine: 99-round
non-disentegrating belt, Magazine Weight: 2.3 kg, ROF: 4 (or
one rifle grenade), Aimed Fire Range: 500 m (700 m on monopod),
Area Fire Burst: 15 rounds (AFV = 1.5), Area Fire Range: 300
meters (500 meters on monopod), DPV: 1
DONDERBUS Combat Shotgun (K. Vved luch*)The Donderbus is a common Kafer weapon often encountered issued to vehicle crews and in close assault units. The weapon appears to be a derivative of the Thud Gun assault rifle with perhaps 50% commonality of parts. Like the Thud Gun, the Donderbus lacks a safety and relies on a two-stage trigger for fire selection; optics are also derived from the Thud Gun and are, actually, excessive for the weapon's capabilities. Overall performance is similar to human 18mm (12 Gauge) designs.
Standard ammunition types available are believed to include buckshot (seven approximately 9mm projectiles appears to be standard), a rifled slug for longer range fire, and an explosive round with limited armor piercing capability. Note also that it appears to be common for Donderbus shotguns issued to close assault units to be fitted with a mounting bracket for the Thumper grenade launcher (see Flashlight, below). This bracket has also been observed to mount a short-wave infrared light on some occasions. The frequency this light is projected at is visible to the standard Kafer thermal goggles and it appears to be issued to Kafers tasked with close assaults on tunnel complexes, buildings, and other settings where there is inadequate ambient light for use of Kafer night vision gear (which does not extend as far into the IR spectrum as its human counterparts). This light can also be mounted on the Flashlight laser rifle, but the only examples of such a pairing known come from post-battle inspection of Kafer spacecraft.
Type: 19mm Automatic Shotgun, Weight (empty): 4.5 kg, Length: 70.5 cm (Bulk = 2), Action: Single Shot or Bursts, Ammunition: 19x58mm caseless (various ammunition types), Muzzle Velocity: 402 mps, Magazine: 8-round box, Magazine Weight: 0.8 kg, ROF: 2, Aimed Fire Range: 85 m, Area Fire Burst: 4 rounds (AFV varies, see below), Area Fire Range: 65 meters, DPV: Variable, see below
19mm Kafer Shotgun Ammunition
IR Light Unit
DONDERBUS II ("D-Bus 2" or "D-Bis") Combat Shotgun (K. ?)First encountered on Kimanjano, the Donderbus II (sometimes referred to as the "D-Bus 2" or "D-Bis" among Anglophone troops), is another combat shotgun design firing the same 19mm round as the Donderbus from the same eight round magazines. Despite the name, there appears to be no relationship between the Donderbus and D-Bus 2 except for the use of common caliber and magazines. The Donderbus II is generally a more lightly constructed weapon, incorporating a folding stock (though a locking mechanism prevents the weapon being fired until the stock is locked out). The weapon is notable for a dual-feed mechanism allowing it to feed from either of two magazines at the same time.
In service, the D-Bus 2 appears to be issued to Kafer officers in some organizations for self-defense and also as a long-range "attention getter." Many D-Bus 2s captured by human forces have been been loaded with one standard magazine of 19mm ammunition, plus a second one loaded with light rubber shot. Kafer officers have been observed firing on their troops with these weapons on a number of occasions, using rubber shot (though in one documented case it appears the officer accidentally used standard 9mm buckshot, with disastrous results). No known examples of the D-Bus 2 carry a mounting bracket for Thumper grenade launchers.
Type: 19mm Automatic Shotgun, Weight (empty): 3.75 kg, Length: 66.7 cm (Bulk = 2), Action: Single Shot or Bursts, Ammunition: 19x58mm caseless (various ammunition types), Muzzle Velocity: 402 mps, Magazine: 8-round box, Magazine Weight: 0.8 kg, ROF: 2, Aimed Fire Range: 85 m, Area Fire Burst: 4 rounds (AFV varies, see below), Area Fire Range: 65 meters, DPV: Variable
Ammunition is the same as that used in the Donderbus, except for the addition of rubber buckshot. Donderbuses can chamber the rubber shot round, but there are no documented cases of it being found loaded in a captured Donderbus. Performance of the rubber shot round is as follows:
19mm Rubber Buckshot: DPV 0.1 (x10), Area Fire Value =
3.0, Range halved and round does blunt trauma only.
Basic Kafer rifle grenades include anti-personnel grenades (high explosive warhead), anti-tank rounds (with HEAT warheads), incendiary smoke rounds (used primarily for screening), and what human observers have dubbed a "Signal Grenade" (often referred to as a "Screamer" by Anglophone troops and der Kaferschrek by German troops who have encountered it). This latter weapon includes a minimal high-explosive burster charge coupled with a small amount of chemical colored smoke and a whistling noisemaker making it extremely easy to follow the weapon's flight path when fired; it is believed that this weapon is used specifically to designate targets to other Kafers once one member of a unit has detected enemy forces.
Note that there are two varieties of Kafer rifle grenades currently observed, which differ only in their launch mechanism. The Type One family of weapons is designed for fire from the Thudgun (and related weapons) and employs shoot-through technology where the rifle round passes through the grenade but imparts sufficient energy to launch the rifle grenade. The Type Two family of weapons is designed for the Bunduki Mpya assault rifle and uses more conventional bullet-trap designs.
The most common means of carrying rifle grenades observed among Kafer troops is the "quiver," a webbing pouch of canvas or leather that is clipped directly to the Kafer by means of holes drilled in the carapace. The usual format allows Kafers to draw rifle grenades from over their shoulders, though some examples ride below the armpit or even down at the level of the waist. A typical quiver can hold three rifle grenades, and a single quiver seems to be basic issue for Thud Gun equipped Kafers, though some Kafers have been observed with two such quivers fitted.
Weight: 0.75 kg per grenade, Aimed Fire Range: 150m, Damage Points: varies by type, High Explosive: DPV as explosive (EP = 6), HEAT: DPV as tamped explosive (EP = 3), Incendiary Smoke: 15 meter burst radius, incendiary effect (15 x 45m cloud of smoke after one turn), Signal Grenade: DPV as Explosive (EP=1) plus Special (see above)
Note: Incendiary fragments do DPV 0.3 in both the primary
and secondary burst radii, but do not inflict blunt trauma.
FLASHLIGHT 75-01 Laser Rifle (K. Vved Kala'ach*) (Revised)A Kafer laser rifle used for precision fire by Kafer "snipers" and light infantry forces. Though lacking the capability to fire rifle grenades, most Flashlights include a mounting bracket to fire "Thumper" 56mm low-velocity grenades. Optics on the Flashlight are essentially improved versions of those found on Thud Gun and are inadequate by human standards for a specialized sniping weapon, though quite superior to standard Kafer optics.
Type: 75-01 laser rifle, Weight (empty): 5 kg (without "Thumper" mounting bracket weapon weighs 4.6 kg), Length: 76.2 cm (Bulk = 2), Action: Single Shot, Pulse Energy: 0.75mj, Muzzle Velocity: C, Magazine: 9mj Kafer Power Cell (power for 12 shots), Magazine Weight: 1.8 kg, ROF: 5, Aimed Fire Range: 1300m, DPV: 2
Thumper Grenade Launcher: A grenade launcher mounted on many Flashlight laser rifles, the Thumper consists of a mounting bracket and short recoil buffer spring to whic is affixed a pre-loaded barrel containing a single percussion-fired 56mm projectile. Even with the use of a buffer spring and a low velocity projectile recoil is quite formidable and Kafer forces have sometimes been observed bracing weapons on the ground to fire them. Ammunition is basically an adaptation of the warheads from Kafer rifle grenades with similar performance and the same range of ammunition types available. Thumper ammunition is also typically carried like Kafer rifle grenades, in "quivers" clipped directly to the carapace, though some alternate arrangements with Thumper rounds carried in thigh-pouches have been observed as well, especially on Beta Canum and Crater.
Type: 56mm single shot grenade launcher, Muzzle Velocity:
230 mps, Magazine: Single round pre-loaded in disposable
barrel, Magazine Weight: 1.25 kg, ROF: 1, Aimed Fire
Range: 250 meters, DPV: Varies by ammunition type (see Rifle
MISCELLANEOUS PERSONAL EQUIPMENT
K-HAWK, K-HAMMER, and BUG MACE (K. ?)In addition to the ubiquitous Kafer "punch daggers" carried by almost all Kafer troops as a combination fighting and camp knife, a number of Kafer soldiers have been observed carrying a variety of other melee weapons suited to very close combat situations. The most commonly encountered are a hatchet/tomahawk type design usually referred to as a "K-Hawk" by Anglophone units and a similar warhammer design likewise designated the "K-Hammer." Both of these designs incorporate a long backspike capable of penetrating many examples of human body armor. Post-mortem examinations of Kafers has revealed a number of healed wounds consistent with this backspike and it appears to have initially been designed to penetrate the Kafer carapace. Both weapons are readily usable by human forces and have become coveted additions to the average infantryman's kit as well as collectable with rear-area troops and others.
A steel or bronze-headed, short-handled mace, usually dubbed the "Bug Mace" or "Roach Stick" and resembling some examples of trench weapons fielded by human forces as recently as the First World War and the Russo-Ukrainian War are also sometimes seem, though less common that the K-Hawk and K-Hammer. These designs, to date, have lacked the backspike on the other two weapons and so appear less useful in Kafer versus Kafer combat.
Note: The backspike on both of the above weapons should be considered an armor-piercing weapon. Double DPV when comparing to armor, but then halve penetrating DPV before resolving wound.
KAFER BODY ARMOR (K. Ach*vah! ?)Kafer use of body armor during the invasion has been infrequent and haphazard, and their precise basis of issue for this sort of equipment is unclear. Two basic varieties have been observed, to date. Light Kafer body armor consists of a ballistic fabric (resembling kevlar and similar human textiles) worn covering the neck and torso. This design either ties on behind the neck, or, in some cases, mounts directly to the Kafer's carapace. Armor protection is minimal, but suitable to protect against low-velocity fragments. The heavier variety observed consists of a rigid breastplate, sometimes worn with an open topped helmet arrangment that provides protection from direct fire but not from overhead projectiles. Both varieties of armor, as well as the observed helmets, incorporate pockets for chemical cooling packets. It has been speculated that Kafer physiology, specifically for loss of heat, is such that the use of armor (as well as other clothing) is more problematic for them than for humans. This might account for the limited issue of such equipment as well. Others have speculated that the examples seen are inspired by human technology, once again.
Light Body Armor "Apron"
Heavy Body Armor "Breast Plate"
PORTABLE SUPPORT WEAPONS
SCATTERGUN Anti-Personnel Rocket (K. Vvesh luch*) [Revised]A light, disposable anti-personnel rocket launcher in general use with Kafer forces, the Scattergun is an unguided weapon with a high-explosive fragmentation warhead incorporating proximity fuzing for airburst. The Scattergun is notable, compared to most Kafer missiles and other weapons, for having a very low launch signature, allowing it to be fired from within buildings or other confined spaces (only approximately two meters of backblast area are necessary) and making detection of launcher position difficult.
Scatterguns have also been encountered mounted on automated launcher units, serving as mechanical ambushes around Kafer defensive positions.
Type: Anti-personnel unguided rocket, Weight (Loaded): 3.9 kg (rocket weighs 1.3 kg), Range: 800 meters, Guidance: None (resolve as aimed fire attack), Damage: As explosive (EP=2) plus burst (fragments are DPV 1.2 in primary fragmentation radius, DPV 0.4 in secondary radius; projectile is airburst, so Scattergun can attack targets behind cover, etc.).
COPPERHEAD Automated Launcher Unit: This device consists of a relatively simple sensor suite (low-light television for detection, short-range lidar for targetting) married to a battery-powered launcher unit holding up to three Scattergun rockets. Two operation modes are possible, the low-power mode limits scanning to a 30 degree arc, while high-power scans a 90 degree field of view, with battery life of approximately 25 and 50 hours, respectively. The lidar targetting system will trigger most human vehicular and individual threat-detection systems, though it only activates immediately prior to launch. The ALU has a tendency to be spoofed by movement, and has been observed engaging cattle and indigenous fauna on various colony worlds. Attacks are of a "shoot-look-shoot" format, wherein the launcher will fire a single rocket and then attempt to determine if the target meets its parameters for neutralized or dead, if not it will fire another rocket, etc.
The launcher was popularly dubbed the "Copperhead" by Tanstaafl militia forces, who have suffered numerous casualties from them. Better equipped human forces have found the device less of a serious threat, as the ALU produces a modest thermal signature that can usually be detected at reasonable range by human night vision equipment.
Weight (unloaded, with battery pack): 21 kg, Sensor
Range: 1000 meters, Range Finder: ALU should be considered to
have Heavy Weapons-1 for firing purposes, Battery Life: 25 or 50
hours (see above)
BLOW TORCH Kafer Flamethrower (K. ?)The Blow Torch is an archaic flame throwing weapon quite similar to weapons used by various human armies during the middle of the 20th century and during the Age of Recovery. The weapon relies on petrochemical-type fuel, which is loaded into the weapon from two seperate pressurized tanks (making it possible to only carry half a standard ammunition load, if needed), ignited via a seperate ingiter cartridge. The Blow Torch consists of a fairly complicated harness worn over the Kafer carapace combined with a short-barreled projector linked to it by a flexible hose; fuel tanks are worn on either side of the carapace, making it possible for the user to change out tanks himself. Use by humans would require extensive redesign of the harness.
Type: Flamethrower, Weight (empty): 6.5 kg,
Length: 65.4 (Bulk = 2), Action: Bursts, Ammunition:
Incendiary Fuel, Muzzle Velocity: N/A, Magazine: two 7.5
liter pressurized fuel tanks (each adequate for three bursts) with
seperately loaded nine-charge igniter cartridge, Magazine Weight: 9
kg (fuel tank), 0.5 kg (igniter cartridge), ROF: 2, Area Fire
Burst: 1 charge (AFV = 4), Area Fire Range: 25 meters,
DPV: 0.5 (x6)
BLOW TORCH 2 Kafer Flamethrower (K. ?)The Blow Torch 2 is an improved version of the weapon above, replacing the petrochemicals with a binary chemical mix which reduces the possibility of catastrophic failure in the event of battle damage or other accident. This version of the weapon also lacks a seperate ignitor cartridge, as the chemicals used are self-igniting when mixed. The use of binary technology also requires that both fuel tanks be used on the weapon. Blow Torch 2 weapons are easily distinguishable from the Blow Torch by the use of a larger flame gun (incorporating a mixing/ignition chamber) and dual hoses feeding into the gun.
Type: Flamethrower, Weight (empty): 6.5 kg,
Length: 65.4 (Bulk = 2), Action: Bursts, Ammunition:
Binary Incendiary Fuel, Muzzle Velocity: N/A, Magazine: two
7.5 liter pressurized binary fuel tanks (adequate for six bursts),
Magazine Weight: 18 kg (9kg per tank), ROF: 2, Area Fire
Burst: 1 charge (AFV = 4), Area Fire Range: 25 meters,
DPV: 0.5 (x6)
FLASH-FRYER Plasma Incendiary Weapon (K. ?)The Flash-Fryer is a three-shot plasma weapon with only minimal magnetic containment and focusing capability, resulting in minimal anti-armor capability but respectable anti-personnel and incendiary effects. Superficially, the Flash-Fryer resembles a Scattergun anti-personnel rocket in layout, though it is easily distinguishable by a rotary magazine at the rear of the weapon.
Kafer forces seem to regard the Flash-Fryer as a disposable weapon and make no attempt to retain them after use. However, the weapon uses the same 40MW plasma cells as the ubiquitous "Beamer" plasma gun, and it was determined by human guerilla groups on various planets occupied during the Invasion that the Flash-Fryer could be reloaded and re-used (tube life is perhaps 30 rounds). Reloading the Flash-Fryer requires basic (Kafer) hand tools, and takes approximately an hour.
Type: 40MW plasma close assault weapon, Weight (loaded):
8.3 kg, Length: 107 cm (Bulk = 4), Action: Single Shot,
Ammunition: 13.3x28.3mm 40MW plasma cells, Magazine: Three
round rotary magazine, Magazine Weight: Included in loaded weapon
weight, ROF: 1, Aimed Fire Range: 15 meters, DPV: As
explosive (EP = 2), plus 5 meter incendiary burst radius (fragment damage
in primary is 0.5 x6, in secondary 0.3)
SATAN STOK (SCATTERGUN-F) Incendiary Rocket (K. ?)First encountered during the fall of Kimanjano and dubbed the Satan Stok (Afrikaans, "Satan Stick") by a historically minded Azanian officer, the Rungu is a variant of the Scattergun rocket replacing the HE-Frag warhead with an incendiary one. (Though officially designated the Scattergun-F by English-speaking militaries, an abbreviated form of the Swahili term has proven popular among Anglo- and Francophone troops serving in the French Arm.)
On detonation, the Satan Stok/Scattergun-F disperses burning napalm-like liquid over an area roughly 20 meters by 10 meters (long axis along flight path of projectile). The Satan Stok has the same low-signature launch characteristics and proximity fuzing as found on the Scattergun. The additional weight of the Rungu appears to preclude its use on Scattergun automated launchers, however.
Type: Incendiary unguided rocket, Weight
(Loaded):4.9 kg (rocket weighs ~2.3 kg), Range: 400 meters,
Guidance: None (resolve as aimed fire attack),
Damage: As explosive (EP=2) with standard fragmentation;
fragment damage is 0.5 (x6)
INDIRECT FIRE SUPPORT SYSTEMSKafer-portable indirect fire support appears to be rather limited in comparison to human developments in this field. To date the only examples seen are the Quickfire backpack missile system (though classed by humans as an anti-vehicle weapon, its high explosive warhead makes it reasonably effective against a range of targets), a light/medium 77mm mortar, and short-range versions of the standard "Bug Bomb" heavy support rockets that can be (barely) carried by individual Kafer troops.
MORTERO TUMBITO 7.7cm Light Mortar (K. ?)A fairly unremarkable light/medium mortar design, the Mortero Tumbito (Texan Spanish, "Little Killer Mortar") is a 77mm mortar, quite heavy by modern human standard and lacking in sophistication in terms of firing computer, etc. The weapon, instead, seems to rely on sophisticated ammunition, instead, with all rounds seen to date being guided, fire-and-forget HE, HEAT, WP and Illumination rounds. Basis of issue suggests the weapon is used by at least some Kafer forces as a platoon or company-analog fire support weapon, typically with a crew consisting of an officer (who apparently somehow sets attack parameters for the mortar bombs' seeker heads and lays in the gun) plus a half-dozen or so Thud Gun equipped Kafer who carry the weapon itself plus ammunition, and one of whom serves as the gunner. Ammunition is often carried in a backpack unit holding six mortar bombs.
The weapon is effective as an indirect fire support system for Kafer forces, though the lack of mobility and lack of any attempt to reduce the signature of mortar rounds means that the weapon is highly vulnerable to even the most rudimentary human counter-battery systems. It developed a reputation during fighting on Aurore for vicious and responsive fire support that has not been borne out in contact with more well equipped human forces. Anglophone troops sometimes refer to the weapon as the "Whistler."
Type: 77mm Medium Mortar, Weight (empty): 33 kg (tube 18kg, baseplate 7kg, bipod 8 kg), Length: 112.4 cm (tube), Action: Single Shot Muzzle Loading, Ammunition: 77.43mm Mortar Bomb, Muzzle Velocity: 456mps, Magazine: Single Shot, Magazine Weight: 4.89 kg per round, ROF: 3, Indirect Fire Range: 5700m, DP Value: Varies by ammunition type
BULLROARER 18.5cm Short Range Support Rocket (K. ?)This is a cut-down version of the standard Kafer 18.5cm "Bug Bomb" indirect fire support rocket, with the range reduced to 5000 meters. Warheads available are similar to those available for the heavier weapon. To date a Wide Area Saturation Projectile (WASP) round, a shaped charge HEAT round, and an Armor Piercing High Explosive round have been identified. This last weapon relies on an armored nose cone and terminal accelorator to penetrate up to a meter of packed earth or even reonforced concrete before a small HE fragmentation charge detonates. It appears to be used as a dedicated bunker-buster in support of deliberate assaults. The rockets are transported in light, open-framed packing crates that doubles as a launch-rack, including the provisions of a light adjustable bipod to roughly set elevation. The rocket primarily relies on aiming cues from an external source; the precise means of inputting this aiming data is not entirely understood at this time. The basic launching rack can be fitted with shoulder straps to allow a single Kafer to carry one rocket. Rockets must be emplaced on the ground to fire, however.
In practice, Kafer forces seem to detail standard units to transport and emplace Bullroarers, positioning them to cover defenses or using them to soften targets during deliberate infantry attacks.
Type: 18.5cm short range rocket, Aimed Fire
Range: 5000 meters, Weight: 35kg plus 5kg for
packing crate/launch frame, ROF: 4, Guidance:
Automatic or laser-homing, Homing Value: 14, Warhead:
WASP (Burst radius 500m, DPV 6), HEAT (DPV as tamped explosive, EP =
40), or APHE (DPV = 50, then as explosive, EP = 10).
BLUE HORNET Heavy Anti-Vehicle Missile (K. ?)First encountered on Kimanjano, the "Blue Hornet" was apparently named by American Marines or Texas Riflemen in reference to its distinctive light blue and white banded markings (ironically, the same colors used on some human inert training ammunition). The Blue Hornet is a heavier anti-armor missile than the Quickfire which is carried in a single-missile backpack launch unit similar to the dual Quickfire launcher. Like the Quickfire, it appears that targetting and firing is done by someone besides the wearer of the backpack launcher unit. Some human analysts believe that the missile may copy certain features of the Blindicide-9; this theory is controversial, however, as its appearance on Kimanjano would suggest more rapid product development and fielding than is believed possible for Kafer society (or, indeed, humans).
Type: Troop carried anti-tank missile, Launcher Weight:
12 kg, Missile Weight: 15 kg, Range: 5000 meters,
Guidance: Automatic, Homing Value:18, Attack
Angle: Overhead, Damage: At tamped explosive, EP = 30
HEULENDE KUH Heavy ATGW (K. ?)A Kafer heavy anti-tank weapon primarily seen to date during the fighting around the Halbinsel and Toshashimize colonies on Joi, and dubbed the Heulende Kuh ("screaming cow") by German defenders on that planet. Anglophone forces often abbreviate this simply to "the Cow." The Heulende Kuh appears to be a straightforward adaptation of the standard Kafer "Bug Bomb" 18.5cm artillery rocket, reworked to flatten trajectory and increase speed. Most notable about the design is that its "warhead" consists of a single-shot plasma cannon firing an approximately 400MW plaser cell. This weapon fires at a range of approximately 150 to 250 meters from the target (firing range can apparently be varied by some means). This approach is not as consistently reliable as a more conventional shaped-charge based or kinetic energy anti-tank missile, due to some problems with targetting the plasma cannon. However, the plasma jet generated is capable of defeating the front or roof armor of any human hovertank and all but the very newest tracked heavy tanks; it is also capable of killing Kafer AFVs up to and including the CCC-1 Behemoth.
The design is worrying to human technical intelligence analysts in a number of ways. Most significantly, the weapon system appears to be a new arrival on the battlefield sometime in early 2302, but more importantly it appears to be product designed to defeat both the armor as well as the commonly fielded point defense machineguns and lasers used on human AFVs, which is does quite effectively on both counts. The weapon took a particularly severe toll on the German defenders on Joi, as their LkPz-VIIIs and LkPz-IXs lacked organic surface to air missiles. Forces employing the AC-12 and other armored vehicles with integral short-range SAM complements have had some success in countering Kuhs at stand-off ranges, but for any human force a volley of these weapons is a serious and hard to deal with threat.
In the defense, standard Kafer tactics appear to focus on concealing large numbers of Kuhs, along with conventional anti-personnel and anti-armor Bug Bombs in "Pak Front" batteries allowing them to mass fire on designated kill zones. In the offense, Kafer forces on Joi were observed to employ a number of open-topped armored carriers fitted with launch racks for up to six Kuhs. These anti-armor vehicles tend to travel with the main column of Kafer forces, and then fire their missiles in support of contacts made by CAC-1 Deathsleds or dismounted reconnaissance parties.
Type: Heavy anti-tank missile, Launcher Weight: 10
kg, Missile Weight: 120 kg, Range: 15km,
Guidance: Unknown, believed Automatic, Homing Value:
16, Attack Angle: Overhead, Damage: At tamped explosive,
EP = 40
QUICKFIRE II Light Anti-Vehicle Missile (K. ?)The Quickfire II appears to be a slightly heavier version of the Quickfire missile, with greatly improved anti-armor performance. The Quickfire II is built on a standard Quickfire missile motor unit, so range is sacrificed to some degree for a larger warhead. While the Quickfire II is believed to be adequate for defeating the thin roof armor of a Deathsled, it is inadequate against modern human hovertanks (though it poses a serious threat to lighter AFVs). Targetting and other information is identical to the Quickfire.
Type: Troop-carried light anti-tank missile, Launcher
Weight: 12 kg, Missile Weight: 10 kg each, Range: 4000
meters, Guidance: Automatic, Homing Value: 20,
Attack Angle: Overhead, Damage: As tamped explosive,
EP = 12
THUNDERBOLT and THUNDERBOLT 2 ATGMsThe Thunderbolt (and the derivative Thunderbolt 2) is the standard anti-vehicle missile arming the Deathsled, the Behemoth, but is also seen occasionally mounted on tracked APC tank destroyer conversions and Kafer Jeeps (but, for whatever reason, the missile is not, apparently, used on the Floater hovercraft). It is similar to comparable human designs such as the Manta-1, Striker, Luchs, etc., except that it sacrifices a portion of shaped-charge warhead size to incorporate a small secondary fragmentation warhead, giving the missile very good anti-personnel performance as well.
When first encountered on Aurore, the performance of the Thunderbolt was fairly poor by human standards. During 2302, however, human ground forces began reporting that the missile's accuracy had improved radically, as well as the fact that the Thunderbolt 2 (as these improved missiles were dubbed) incorporated a limited ability to engage aerial targets. Analysis of captured missiles indicates that this increased performance apparently stems from software modifications to optimize the missile for use against human vehicles, which require somewhat more advanced attack parameters.
Type: Kafer Heavy Anti-Vehicle Missile, Launcher Weight: ~ 15kg, Missile Weight: 29 kg, Range: up to 11,000 meters, Guidance: Automatic, Homing Value: 13 (16), Attack Angle: Selectable, DP: As tamped explosive (EP = 35, Burst Radius = 25 m)
Notes: (1) The Thunderbolt has a maximum range of 11
kilometers, but is highly dependent on launching vehicle sensor
capability, on Deathsled, for instance, range is limited to 8km and when
mounted on Kafer APCs and Jeeps range seems to be as low as 6km; (2)
Parenthetical homing value is for the Thunderbolt 2, which appears to have
begun entering service (or first been deployed against human forces) in
spring of 2302; (3) The Thunderbolt 2 may attack aerial targets, provided
their evasion value is less than the missile's homing value. Resolve
such attacks normally.
Kafer 22.2mm AutocannonStandard armament on the Deathsled for use against personnel and light vehicles, the Kafer 22.2mm autocannon can also be found mounted on other Kafer AFVs and quadpod mounts. The weapon is a very conventional recoil operated weapon firing ballistically-capped hign explosive incendiary rounds from disintegrating belts. The standard APHE round has sufficient armor penetration to punch through the thin armor of Kafer LAVs, as well as possessing a substantial anti-personnel capability.
Overall performance of the 22.2mm is subpar compared to human designs, owing to a lower muzzle velocity and smaller round. Against human armored vehicles, which are generally armored to a higher standard than their Kafer counterparts, the 22.2mm has not performed well, though it is adequte for engaging soft-skin vehicles and personnel. Besides the Deathsled mount, the weapon has also been encounted mounted on Kafer armored carriers and on quadpod mounts (these last must be substantially sand-bagged or otherwise anchored to cope with the weapon's recoil, however, and are not frequently encountered except around fortified Safe Places).
Type: 22.2mm conventional autocannon, Weight: ~ 78 kg
(quadpod mount weighs 21 kg), Length: 207 cm, Action: Single
shot or burst, Ammunition: 22.2 x 134mm fixed cartridge HEI,
Muzzle Velocity: 1000 mps, Magazine Weight: ~ 20 kg per case
of 33, ROF: 5, Aimed Fire Range: 1000 meters, Area Fire
Burst: 10 rounds (AFV =1), Area Fire Range: 1000 meters, DP
Value: 4 (+ 5m burst radius)
TRIPLE-ZIPPER 12.1mm Multi-Barrel Machinegun (K. ?)The Triple-Zipper is an externally powered, three barreled minigun, capable of firing approximately 2500 rounds per minute. Though most commonly seen on vehicles or in static defensive positions, there is also a somewhat portable version for use by infantry forces in a role similar to medium and heavy machineguns in human forces. The infantry version includes a quadpod mount with removable runners to allow it to be dragged as a sledge and a small hydrocarbon-powered auxiliary power unit to operate the weapon (the APU includes an integral battery pack to allow instant powering up and use of the weapon, though battery power alone is only adequate for approximately 30 seconds of operation).
Standard ammunition in vehicle and static mounts appears to be a 3600 round cassette with an integral motor unit to assist in Triple-Zipper itself in loading. Infantry versions seem to use 900 and 1200 round cassettes without auxilliary motors, though weight is still formidable. Standard Kafer infantry machinegun crews seem to consist of six individuals, including a gunner (carrying the weapon itself), an assistant with the quadpod, a second assistant with the APU and a 900 round cassette, and up to three ammunition bearers, each carrying a 1200 round magaizine.
Type: 12.1mm minigun, Weight (empty): 23 kg (infantry
quadpod is 21 kg, auxiliary power unit weights 11 kg), Length: 90
cm (Bulk = 3), Action: Single Shot or Bursts, Ammunition:
12.1x31mm APHE, Muzzle Velocity: 650 mps, Magazine:
Variable, standard cassettes are 900, 1200, and 3600 rounds, Magazine
Weight: 27 kg (900 rounds), 35 kg (1200 rounds), 94 kg (3600 rounds),
ROF: 5, Aimed Fire Range: 800 meters, Area Fire
Burst: 60 (AFV = 6), Area Fire Range: 800 meters, DP
BLACK FLAG 18.5cm Chemical Rocket (K. ?)"Black Flag" is the common term used to describe both a number of similar standard Kafer chemical agents encountered to date, as well as the most common delivery system, based on the ubiquitous 18.5cm Bug Bomb artillery rocket. The Black Flag chemical agent is a non-persistant nerve agent whose composition is very similar to comparable human-devised compounds, though it has been noted to break down into inert subcomponents with surprising rapidity (only non-lethal trace amounts of the agent remain by 30 minutes after release). Kafer forces appear to use the substance liberally against known or suspected troop concentrations, population centers, airfields, etc., especially during the initial invasion of Aurore. This has puzzled human observers, who have noted that Kafer chemical protective gear is awkward and ergonomically miserable, when it is issued at all. The only theory advanced to date (besides the theory that Kafer commanders simply do not care if their subordinates wander into contaminated areas) is that Kafer leaders are expected to synchronize troop movements with the breakdown of the chemical.
Black Flag is not the only chemical weapon used to date by the Kafers, though it is the most common. On at least one occasion during the initial fighting for Tanstaafl, the aliens appear to have used an agent, dubbed Event 395-980415 by Tanstaafl and ESA intelligence teams (referencing Hill 395, where the incident occurred, and the date) that was inert in terms of human biology, so far as can be determined. Kafer forces suffered heavy losses in an attack following a chemical agent prep of the human position, and it appears that they expected the militia defending the hill to be incapacitated or killed by the agent used. Very little is known about this weapon outside that single known case of usage.
Type: 18.5cm chemical agent artillery rocket, Aimed Fire Range: 30km, Weight of Rocket: 120kg plus 10kg case/launch rack, ROF: 4, Guidance: Laser-homing or free flight, Warhead: Nerve Agent, Burst Radius: 200m, DP: Special, see below.
Nerve Agent Damage: Those exposed to Black Flag take DPV 0.4 to both their head and chest each turn they are exposed. If removed from exposure, they will continue to take this damage for 1d6+6 turns, unless treated with anti-nerve agent drugs such as atropine or its 24th century derivatives. Personnel wearing chemical-protective clothing (which includes many standard military field uniforms circa 2300) and protective masks will be unaffected. If just wearing a mask, the individual will only take damage to the chest, but not the head. Wearing a chemical protective suit with no mask has no effect, resolve damage normally.
7 August 2004
7 August 2004
Copyright, 2004 James Boschma
Copyright, 2004 James Boschma