NEW LOOK AT THE FLIGHT MECHANICS OF INSECTS
By Noel Huntley, Ph.D.
Not only zoologists but, in particular, engineers are very aware of the mystery of how insects fly. Calculations have been made of wing-beat rate and amplitude, and the data, combined with wing area, shape and angle of encounter of the oncoming air have been fitted into a recognised aerodynamics formula. The result is a theoretical prediction of the amount of lift the insect's wings are apparently providing. But the formula and calculations only work for a scaled-down aircraft, and the insects do not behave that way. The lifting force, as calculated, is deficient by a factor of several times. Thus the insect must be performing some maneuvers of its own to achieve flight.
In addition, there is a question of the provision of sufficient energy supply for sustained flight. We might also add to the list the problem of inertia. No matter how light an insect's wings, if they are beating at the colossal frequency rate of up to 1000 times per second, the inertia, and therefore force, necessary to move the wings will be proportionately considerable.
Investigators have referred to a specialised type of muscle that is capable of contracting at much greater rates than normal muscle. Wings have been observed to tilt down during the downstroke at the leading edge of the wing and up during the upstroke. In addition, with flies, wing twisting occurs at each end of the stroke. In all but the most primitive insects, muscles provide power by acting on the plates of the exoskeleton of the thorax.
The motion of the wings caused by muscles is assisted by a mechanism similar to a light switch which flips through an unstable mid point---the 'click mechanism'. Also rubbery hinges cause the wings to bounce at the top and bottom of the stroke. Power can be increased by wing twisting and beat frequency. Adequate fuel is considered to be ensured by having high concentrations of carbohydrates in the hemolymph and by using hormones to boost fuel mobilisation.
The flight mechanism of insects is different from birds since insects wear their skeletons on the outside of their bodies like suits of armour. The skeletal plates are articulated by muscle and a tough rubbery membrane, and the wings are carried on the second and third segments of the thorax. The latter is box-like with no top or bottom and placed on one side (for a horizontal analogy). Each wing connects to the edge of the top plate and pivots on the edge of the side plate. If the top plate is vibrated by attached muscles on the inside, the wings are raised and lowered. These plates appear to provide the ultra-high rates of frequency by causing the muscles to resonate with them.
However, in spite of this information, as stated, the aerodynamics engineer's formula fails to explain how the insect can provide sufficient lift. Nevertheless, subtle actions of the wings have been observed causing air vortices that add to the lifting force. The 'clap and peel' is one system in which the wings are clapped together at the top of the stroke then peeled off. As the wings part, a partial vacuum is created between the wings and to some degree above them. This sucks in air and provides additional lift.
In the journal Nature, October, 1997 an article on insect flight indicated that scientists may have solved the mystery. Ingenious experiments have been conducted by zoologist Dr Charles Ellington and colleagues which reveal that insects create a whirling cylinder of air above their wings that provides lift.
Dr. Ellington's team utilised hawkmoths with wing span about four inches which beat their wings slowly enough to make observations. The moths were constrained in a wind tunnel through which a stream of smoke was passed to show how the air flowed over the wings. A thousand pictures per second were taken with a videocamera.
It was observed that when the moth flapped down, a layer of air curled up into a cylinder just above and behind the front edge of the wing. This air vortex maintained a low pressure which pulled the top of the wing upwards, apparently providing enough lift for flying. This same upthrust effect was found to occur with large insect models or even paper aeroplanes but the vortex was found to expand and roll off the wing, causing, temporarily, good lift then stalling. It was deduced that insects used a trick that prolonged the lift---the vortex continuously slips towards the wing edge preventing it from growing.
Dr Ellington's work has been described as the best explanation for obtaining sufficient lift, though there are other mysteries such as how insects can maneuver and cope with winds.
Are there any other sources to which we can turn for further possible explanations of the insect's flight? Most certainly. Our quantum computer system is a sufficient mechanism to potentially handle any of the problems. It is suggested that the reader studies the articles on physical mobility, part I and part II, in conjunction with this material.
Firstly, let us mention some related phenomena. The tornado or twister is a powerful vortex which causes air to swirl in a whirlpool fashion. Does one really believe that when a truck is lifted by a tornado the force doing this is a Newtonian one only? There is no way such a mass is being held up by only a pressure of air even though one will find a huge upward pressure of air to be present. In particular, there is the question of stability to consider. The levitated body appears to float.
There is no current (orthodox) science of the centripetal force, though the great pioneer Schauberger demonstrated practical applications of this knowledge, which has been suppressed. Such information is now the property of the One World Government which has developed the 'cosmospheres' (antigravity spacecrafts). Victor Schauberger invented antigravity generators during the 1940s for the Germans.
When a whirlpool sucks fluid and debris towards its centre it is not only a particle and fluidic pressure which accompanies this but something else is occurring. The physics of the underlying twisting action of whirlpools, whirlwinds, tornadoes, etc. is such that spacetime is curved, distorted.
The only matter with which we need to concern ourselves here is regarding what's happening to the gravitational nodes (see article on gravity). Think of particles pressuring towards the centre of the Earth. As these nodes pass through objects, the nodes drag the objects downwards (by wave entrainment/mode-locking/resonance) giving rise to the gravitational force (which is not the actual gravitational field). This gravitational force is identical to the inertial force. It is not equivalent as given in Einstein's relativity. There is no principle of equivalence (since they are the same).
If these nodes change direction, as in a twister, space is curved and any objects 'fall' in the direction in which the nodes---passing through the body---move. Thus a heavy object, such as a truck, 'falls' up or sideways or whatever, as the gravitational nodes curving in that direction pass through it. This is not a Newtonian force, which acts on the surface. This is a spacetime quantum action. Spacetime is being engineered by the tornado and there are no forces! (except from air pressure).
Einstein apparently grasped this with his 'no-force condition' but allowed a Newtonian description of it and therefore it was not a true no-force condition, as in holistic/holographic quantum action, in which spacetime is manipulated. There is nothing fantastic about this. It is very common. We have been programmed to believe spacetime is 'flat', and one level, as one goes across the universe. We humans engineer certain layers of spacetime when we develop skills---sometimes called the biogravitational field.
In the articles on physical mobility we explained that physical movement was due to a dual system: the synchronistic action of the muscular system and the quantum computer system. This same principle is sure to apply to the motion of the wings of the insect just as it does to the arms of man---in fact, even more so.
Thus in conducting research into insect flight, the scientist would first be expected to discover the air vortex, which, as mentioned above, to some degree has been done. What hasn't been realised is that underlying these vortices (also in tornados) are electromagnetic vortices or centripetal energy spirals, which influence the particles of space, what might be called gravitons (or nodes, referred to above). These vortices contain programmes and not only can manipulate wing motion in any desired manner but will create 'lift' effects.
There will be a quantum-field vortex effect centred over the pivot points of the insect's wings at the thorax. The incredible skill of the insect tells us that the quantum field and information density within it will be considerable (see articles on physical mobility) and that much, if not all, of the wings will be enveloped by the fields. These fields contain the programmes and resonate with the internal oscillations of molecules of the wings cancelling inertial effects. (Note that this research overlaps with the author's lifetime work on arm motions in physical mobility---see articles.)
Therefore rate of wing beat can be very high, effortlessly. Not only this but the quantum action requires no energy from solid or chemical fuels. We know from quantum theory that every point in space is virtually an infinite supply of energy. This has been called cosmic, universal energy, or academically, zero-point energy---it is free. The insect's mechanism operates on open systems not closed (see articles on open and closed systems). An atom---an open system---is an unlimited source of energy if one tapped it off by resonance---it would continuously replenish itself (through its white-hole action). The insect's muscles would be relaxed, yet responsive, to the degree the quantum or electromagnetic fields were developed (size and density of information).
If one asks why have muscles then? This is a good question but can easily be answered. The universe and nature often work in parallel levels. In addition, this is the third dimension, of force, inertia, effort, chemical fuels, out-of-phase energies, one exhibiting a Newtonian reality, etc. Evolution, however, could drop out the muscular system ultimately.
We have briefly shown that there is no problem with extremely high rates of vibration of wings or fuel requirements for sustained flights. Of principal interest is the lift factor. Schauberger, in his early days of research, observed that salmon could remain stationary in a fast flowing stream without using their tail or fins. He eventually understood that the fish was somehow creating a vortex ahead of its body--possibly by drawing in water through the mouth and out of the gills.
Picture a wire spring with very small diameter at one end and gradually increasing in diameter towards the other end (cone shaped). Now place this over the head of the salmon. The head of the fish is now pointing at the center of the vortex (spring) and will be sucked towards it. But remember, this is not just fluidic action, gravitational nodes are also being drawn towards the centre enabling the salmon to 'fall' forward. When leaping up waterfalls the salmon would create the vortex with the small diameter end upwards towards the surface of the water. Schauberger, in the early part of this century, and witnessed by scientists and the public, made oak logs (heavier than water) float down the river for the logging industry by placing planks in a fluted manner under the water to create appropriate water vortices.
If we apply this same principle to the insect to provide lift we can see that either 1) the insect wing beat pattern creates a similar air vortex above its body, giving rise to the quantum vortex and control of gravitational nodes, or 2) since this particular air vortex hasn't been detected, the insect could create the quantum vortex first. In (2) the wing beat pattern could manipulate the quantum vortex existing at the pivots to produce the lifting quantum vortex above the insect. Thus in (2) the quantum vortex is created first but since the field need only be extremely weak to provide the additional lift there may not be enough power to effect the air noticeably.
In case of confusion here, what we are stating is that in physical mobility the quantum vortex is activated at the joints, containing information---what we call learning patterns---to produce any degree of skill (depending on information density). This is an inherent mind phenomenon. But also we are stating that this quantum vortex mechanism can be regenerated by a counterpart of third-dimensional properties---a 'lower' parallel level---such as in an air vortex (e.g., tornado) or water vortex (e.g., whirlpool). Note that this is consistent with the Hermetic philosophical truism, "As above, so below", sometimes quoted by physicists. However, in the case of the insect's additional wing-lift requirement, since no air vortex of this kind has been observed, the existing quantum vortices at the joints, through wing-beat pattern, could generate the necessary conical vortex for extra lift. Thus this quantum vortex or electromagnetic field system around joints can achieve the dual purpose of 1) manipulating wing motion at high repetitions, accompanied by reduced inertia, and 2) providing lift to the insect as a whole.
Note that high-frequency quantum fields are difficult to detect--impossible if instruments do not have a correspondingly high-frequency detection system. In addition, quantum oscillations (or scalar fields) have no exposed electric and magnetic forces, since they are unified in their higher-dimensional scalar-wave characteristics. The above-mentioned levitation effect is a form of antigravity utilised in spacecraft propulsion systems.
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