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The Female Pope: The Mystery of Pope Joan

by Rosemary and Darroll Pardoe


THE FOLLOWING abbreviations have been used throughout this section.

MGH:SS: Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Scriptores

OC: M. Le Quien, Oriens Christianus (1745)

RGSS: Rerum Germanicarum Scriptores aliquot insignes, ed. J. Pistorius (1726)

RISS: Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, ed. L.A. Muratori

SBI: Scriptorum Brunsvicensia Illustrantium, ed. G.G. Leibnitz (1710)


(A) Early Sources

Adam of Usk, Chronicon Adae de Usk 1377-1404, ed. & trans. Edward Maunde Thompson (1876).

Bellarmine, Robert, De Summo Pontifice; Opera Omnia (1872), I, pp.474-5.

Boccaccio, Giovanni, Concerning Famous Women, trans. Guido A. Guarino (1964).

De Mulieribus Claris (1539).

Brewyn, William, A XVth Century Guide-Book to the Principal Churches of Rome, trans. C. Eveleigh Woodruff (1933).

Burchard, John, Liber Notarum; RISS, XXXII pt 1, vol. 1, pp.83,176.

Capgrave, John, Ye Solace of Pilgrimes. A Description of Rome, circa AD 1450, ed. C.A. Mills & H.M. Bannister (1911).

Chronica Minor Auctore Minorita Erphordiensi; MGH:SS, XXIV, p.184.

Chronicon Salernitanum; MGH:SS, III, p.481.

Erchempert, Historia Langobardorum Beneventi degentium; RISS, V, p.32.

Eulogium, Chronicon ab orbe condito usque ad annum 1366, ed. Frank Scott Haydon (1858).

Flores Historiarum; Rolls Series I (1890), ed. H.R. Luard, p.425.

Flores Temporum Auctore Fratre Ordinis Minorum: Pontifices; MGH:SS, XXIV, p.243.

Gaufridus de Collone, Chronicon; MGH:SS, XXVI, p.615.

Gotfrid of Viterbo, Pantheon; RGSS, II, p.372.

Haemerlein, Felix, De Nobilitate et Rusticitate Dialogus (circa 1490).

Hasenmuller, Elias, Historia Iesuitici Ordinis (1593).

Higden, Ranulph, Polycronycon (1527 reprint).

Historia Erphesfordensis Anonymi Scriptoris De Landgraviis Thuringiae; RCSS, I, p.1302.

Jean de Mailly, Chronica Universalis Mettensis; MGH:SS, XXIV, p.514.

Marianus Scotus, Historiographi sui temporis clarissimi; RGSS, I, p.639.

Martin Polonus, Chronicon Pontificum et Imperatum; MGH:SS, XXII, p.428.

Mirabilia Urbis Romae. The Marvels of Rome; or A Picture of the Golden City, ed. Francis Morgan Nichols (1889).

Petrarch, Franceso, Chronica de le Vite de Pontefici et Imperadori Romani (1534).

Rolevinck, Werner, Fasciculus Temporum omnes antiquorum chronicas complectens; RGSS, II, p.528.

Schedel, Hartmannus, Liber Chronicarum (1493).

Sigebert of Gemblours, Chronographia; RGSS, I, p.794.

Stephen of Bourbon, De Diversis Materiis Praedicabilibus; Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum, J. Quetif & J. Echard, I (1719), p.367.

Theodoric Engelhusius, Chronicon; SBI, II, p.1065.

Tiraqueau, André, De Legibus Connubialibus, et Iure Maritali; Opera Omnia (1597), II, p.188.

William of Ockham, Opus Nonaginta Dierum; Opera Politica, ed. J.G. Sikes & H.S. Offler (1963), II, p.854.

Wolfius, John, Lectionum Memorabilium et Reconditarum Centenarii XVI (1671), I, p.231 (Stephan Blanck), p.230 (Baptista Mantuanus).


(B) Religious Polemic

Cooke, Alexander, Pope Joane. A Dialogue Between a Protestant and A Papist (1610).

Cope, Alan, Dialogi Sex Contra Pontificatos (1566).

Francklin, John Fairfax, and Clement, William, The Vicar of Whaplode and 'Pope Joan' (1876).

Harding, Thomas, A Confutation of a Booke Intituled An Apologie of the Church of England (1565, facsimile reprint 1976).

The History of Pope Joan and the Whores of Rome (1687).

H.S., Historia De Donne Famose or The Romaine Iubile which happened in the yeare 855 (English translation 1599).

I.M., The Anatomic of Pope Ioane (1624).

Jewel, John, Defence of the Apology of the Church of England; The Works of John Jewel, Parker Society, IV (1850), pp.648-56.

Poulson, Edward, The End of the Papacy (1901).

A Present for a Papist, ed. with additions by H. Shuttleworth (1785).

R.W., Pope Joan, or an Account collected out of the Romish Authors... (1689).


(C) Secondary Sources

Adinolfi, Pasquale, Roma nell'età di Mezzo (1881), I.

Baring-Gould, Sabine, Curious Myths of the Middle Ages (1877 reprint).

Bayle, Pierre, Dictionary (1710).

Bumpus, T.F., The Cathedrals and Churches of Italy (1926).

Davis, Elizabeth Gould, The First Sex (1973).

Döllinger, John J.I., Von, Fables Respecting the Popes of the Middle Ages, trans. Alfred Plummer (1871).

D'Onofrio, Cesare, La Papessa Giovanna: Roma E Papato Tra Storia E Leggenda (1979).

Duchesne, Louis, Étude sur le 'Liber Pontificalis' (1886).

Fuller, Graham, and Knight, Ian, 'The Lady is a Pope?'; The Unexplained, XIII, no.151 (1983), pp.3014-17.

L'Enfant, James, The History of the Council of Constance, trans. S. Whatley (1730).

Le Quien, M., Oriens Christianus (1745).

Mosheim, John Laurence, Ecclesiastical History, trans. Archibald Maclaine (1826), II.

Müntz, Eugène, 'La Légende de la Papesse Jeanne dans 1'illustration des Livres, du XVe au XIXe siècle'; La Bibliofilia, (1900) pt 2, pp.325-39.

Patrides, C.A., Premises and Motifs in Renaissance Thought and Literature (1982).

Perrodo-Le Moyne, Henri, Un Pape Nommé Jeanne (1972).

Rhöides, Emmanuel D., Pope Joan - A Historical Study (1886).

Thurston, Herbert, Pope Joan (1929 reprint).

Tomassetti, G., 'La Statua Della Papessa Giovanna'; Bullettino Della Commissione Archeologica Comunale de Roma, XXXV (1907), pp.82-95.


(D) Drama, Fiction and the Tarot

Borodin, George, The Book of Joanna (1947).

Bowen, Marjorie, Black Magic (1974 reprint).

Dunan, Renée, Pope Joan, trans. Hélène Graeme (1930).

Fauconpret, C., La Papesse Jeanne: Opéra-Bouffon en Vaudevilles, en Trois Actes (1793).

Ince, Richard, When Joan was Pope (1931).

Innes, Brian, The Tarot: How to use and interpret the cards (1977).

Kaplan, Stuart R., The Encyclopedia of Tarot, I (1978).

Moakley, Gertrude, The Tarot Cards Painted by Bonifacio Bembo (1966).

Rhöides, Emmanuel D., Pope Joan: A Romantic Biography, trans. Lawrence Durrell (1960 reprint).

Settle, Elkanah, The Female Prelate: being the history of the life and death of Pope Joan (1680).

Schernberg, Dietrich, Ein Schön Spiel von Frau Jutten (1971 reprint).

Schröder, Edward, 'Goethe's Faust und "Das Spiel von Frau Jutten"'; Vierteljahrschrift für Litteraturgeschichte (1891) pt 4, pp.336-9.

Wood, Clement, The Woman Who Was Pope (1931).


(E) Female Monks and Other Saints

Anson, John, 'The Female Transvestite in Early Monasticism: The Origin and Development of a Motif'; Viator, V (1974), pp.1-32.

Bullough, Vern L., 'Transvestites in the Middle Ages'; American Journal of Sociology, LXXIX pt 6, pp.1381-94.

Butler's Lives of the Saints, Thurston and Attwater edition (1956).

'De B. Hugolina Virgine'; Acta Sanctorum (1867 reprint), August (ii), pp.395-8.

Delcourt, Marie, Hermaphrodite: Myths and Rites of the Bisexual Figure in Classical Antiquity, trans. Jennifer Nicholson (1961).

Delehaye, Hippolyte, The Legends of the Saints, trans. Mrs V.M. Crawford (1974 reprint).

Dunbar, Agnes B.C., A Dictionary of Saintly Women (1904).

James, M.R., The Apocryphal New Testament (1924) ('The Acts of Paul and Thecla').

Lacey, J. Hubert, 'Anorexia Nervosa and a Bearded Female Saint'; British Medical Journal, CCLXXXV (18-25 December 1982), pp.1816-17.

O'Leary, De Lacy, The Saints of Egypt (1937).

Select Narratives of Holy Women, trans. Agnes Smith Lewis; Studia Sinaitica 10 (1900) (St Eugenia and St Euphrosyne).

Three Coptic Legends: Hilaria, Archellites, The Seven Sleepers, ed. & trans. James Drescher, Supplément aux Annales Du Service des Antiquités de L'Égypte, IV (1947).

Thurston, Herbert, 'The Story of St Hildegund, Maiden and Monk'; The Month, February 1916, pp.145-56.

Waddell, Helen, The Desert Fathers (1936) ('The Life of St Pelagia the Harlot').

Warner, Marina, Joan of Arc: The Image of Female Heroism (1981).

(For St Hildegund see also the 'Notes and References' to Appendix: Sources for St Hildegund.)

Copyright (c) 1988 Rosemary and Darroll Pardoe

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