All contributions are welcome, as is any information relating to 20th Century defence infrastructure within Cumbria, and information appertaining to Workington's recent past. Thanks are due to my Father, William Barnes, for his research and his memories; to Darren Riley who provided photographs and information relating to defences in the Barrow-In-Furness area; to Jeff Wilson and Malcolm Huddart, who shared their knowledge (and photographs!) of Harrington & West Cumberland; to Martin Rigby, who "gets around", as it were, and provided me with the Kirkby Lonsdale photos taken on his travels; to Andrew Holland, who remembers the coastline between Drigg and Sellafield; to Steve Johnston, for information about emergency water supplies; to Mike Gregson, for his photographs of the Mawbray Bank bombing range; to Colin Haycock and George Doughty, for information and memories of Silloth aerodrome; to Sandy Forbes, for his civil engineering experience regarding mystery structures; to Ken Mulcaster, for his childhood memories of life in wartime Workington; to Ethel Fisher MBE, who remembers the decoy site at St. Helens (Siddick); to George (Hodgson) Edwards, who took the photographs of Solway Colliery and the Derwent blast-furnaces as a young man; to David Parkin, an inveterate researcher and Millom RAF Museum volunteer who provided many pictures of defences in the deep south of Cumbria; to Glynn Griffith, the curator of the Millom RAF Museum who is on tap for knowledge regarding all aspects aviation; to Rita Blake, for details of Hutton-In-The-Forest, relating to the SLG there; to Pat Coyle, of Workington, for her recollections of the Workington Home-Guard; to Frank Lewthwaite and Harold Clifford (Ex- Gunner Clifford, Searchlight Operator) of Whitehaven, for information about the Bransty shore battery; to Lis, who put me right on the old railway near Cark aerodrome; to Philip Carlisle from English heritage, who pointed out the similarity between an unknown structure on Workington dock to one at Kingswear Castle, Devon; to Chris Clouter of A.B.P , who granted permission for pill-box photography within the dock area at Barrow; to Sheila Cartwright, who researched HMS Volcano; to Michael Friend, who by good fortune is the son of P. D. Friend GM RNVR, and who kindly provided photographs of HMS Volcano in action; to Laurie Farrington of Ottowa, Canada, for memories of HMS Macaw near Bootle; to John Smailes, who came forward with more information on the Harrington "Magnesite" plant; to Messrs: Alfred Hall MBE and W. E. Muscott, two of the original Home-Guardsmen attached to the 406th Coast Battery, who provided first-hand information about life on the Workington guns; to Mrs Margaret Leemans of Egremont, the one-time Manageress of the 406th Coast-battery NAAFI, for her remeniscenses and memories of sixty years ago; to Sue, an ex-Victoria School pupil who volunteered some hitherto unknown information; to English Heritage (NMR) RAF Photography, for allowing publication of the 1948 Workington Coast-Battery photograph; to Tony Sugden, for information relating to the Winscales rifle-range; to the West Cumberland Times and Star, for permission to reproduce an article from their archives; to Janet Thompson of Workington, for her diligent and unceasing research; to David McCreedy, for his memories of Newlands School; to George Bainbridge, for his memories of Longcroft Radio Station; to John Huggon, for his knowledge regarding the wireless operations of HMS Nuthatch; to Keith Atkinson, who updated me on the Winscales firing-range; to Derek Barton, for providing information on the Royal Artillery; to Christopher Eager, who alerted me to the railway pill-box at Thwaite flat, Dalton-In-Furness, and who photographed it for me; to Harry Hawkins, who provided the photo of Hornby Hall satellite landing-ground; to Clarence and Craig Postlethwaite, for allowing me to publish family photographs and for information regarding the Workington GPO Home-Guard; to the BT Archive, Ian Jolly, Robert Weir, and the Ex-GPO Telecomms Staff newsgroup for details of the formation of the GPO Home-Guard; to Nick Catford and Jeff, contributors to uk.rec.subterranea, for assistance with St Bees RADAR station; to Tim Harris of Ambleside, who provided the cracking B&W photographs of the Buckhill munitions trains on the 'Calva Junction' page; to Frank O'Donnell, who provided some cracking images of the coke ovens at Moss Bay; to Philip Tuer for his super photographs of the WWII defences of Longtown munitions works; to Roy Chadwick, for his memories of National Service at Drigg; to Simon Ledingham, for his superb aerial photographs of Burgh-by-Sands bombing range; to Matt Brannan, who photographed the inside of the Camerton drift-mine; to Tom Davidson, for his iconic photographs of coke ovens, Bessemer converter and ore-ground in the 1960s; to David Boyd, for his encyclopaedic knowledge of Chapel Bank and the Distington Engineering Company.


Books and Texts which I have found invaluble when trying to identify defence works are:

Much has also been learned from those who contribute to the usenet newsgroup <uk.rec.subterranea>.

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Copyright 1999 Russell W. Barnes

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